Precipitato un B737 Max 8 di ET, conseguenze sul mezzo e sul mercato

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kco
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Re: Precipitato un B737 Max 8 di ET, conseguenze sul mezzo e sul mercato

Messaggio da leggereda kco » sab 28 mar 2020, 13:05:26

Da copia di flight international in mio possesso
Boeing has requested at least $60 billion in government aid to support the broader US aerospace manufacturing sector – funds the company says will help the industry weather the coronavirus downturn and protect 2.5 million jobs.

“Boeing supports a minimum of $60 billion in access to public and private liquidity, including loan guarantees, for the aerospace manufacturing industry,” the company said on 17 March.

“This will be one of the most important ways for airlines, airports, suppliers and manufacturers to bridge to recovery.”

Boeing says the request is for funds that would be available to the entire aerospace supply chain.

“We look forward to working with the administration and Congress as they consider legislation and the appropriate policies,” Boeing adds.

The Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), which represents aerospace companies, has laid out a four-point plan to help the industry weather the hit from coronavirus.

Its strategy includes: the temporary injection of public and private investment into the system to boost liquidity; measures to help protect the workforce, particularly in defence programmes; support for small businesses and the supply chain; and better management and faster payment on federal contracts.

“We urge American leaders at every level – local, state, and federal – to seize this opportunity to work together to help support our industry, which is essential to our country’s economic and national security,” says the AIA.

Boeing’s request came on the same day President Donald Trump pledged to assist Boeing and travel-related industries, including the airline sector, which has requested $58 billion in aid.

The airframer says the “long-term outlook for this industry is still strong”.

“But until global passenger traffic resumes to normal levels, these measures are needed to manage the pressure on the ­aviation sector and the economy as a whole,” it adds.

Trump says the US government will “protect” Boeing from the adverse effects of the coronavirus downturn, suggesting financial aid to the aerospace industry may be part of an economic relief plan.

Boeing was already struggling with the 737 Max grounding when the coronavirus outbreak started – and because the root of its current crisis is self-inflicted, any bailout will not be without controversy.




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malpensante
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Re: Precipitato un B737 Max 8 di ET, conseguenze sul mezzo e sul mercato

Messaggio da leggereda malpensante » gio 30 apr 2020, 09:24:41

Boeing, Expecting a Long Slump, Will Cut 16,000 Jobs

The company, which saw sales plunge in the first quarter, said air travel might not recover for years.

By Niraj Chokshi

April 29, 2020


The breathtaking slowdown in global aviation is taking a huge toll on Boeing, which said on Wednesday that it would slash about 16,000 jobs after reporting that revenue tumbled by 26 percent in the first three months of the year.

“The global pandemic has changed the way we live and work,” said Boeing’s chief executive, David L. Calhoun, in a note to staff. “It is changing our industry. We are facing utterly unexpected challenges.”

Airlines around the world are trying to stay alive, with losses expected to total more than $300 billion by year’s end, according to an industry trade group. As a result, many carriers are delaying purchases, deliveries and maintenance.

Boeing said it was slowing aircraft production, including for the troubled 737 Max, the 787, the 777 and the 777x. The company is also exploring ways to raise more capital, either from the federal government or from financial markets. The job cuts, about 10 percent of Boeing’s staff, will be even steeper for those employed in the divisions most exposed to the downturn, the commercial airplanes and services businesses. Staff cuts in those units will be about 15 percent.

“I know this news is a blow during an already challenging time,” Mr. Calhoun said in the note. “I regret the impact this will have on many of you. I sincerely wish there were some other way.”

Boeing reported a net loss of $641 million in the first quarter, compared with a $2.1 billion profit a year earlier.

The company has said that it does not expect air travel to recover to levels reached before the pandemic for three years and that it would most likely take several years more for travel to return to its previous long-term growth rate.

Boeing’s commercial aircraft business was especially hard hit in the first quarter by the grounding of the Max and the pandemic, with revenues for that business down nearly 50 percent, to $6.2 billion, from a year earlier. Total revenue dropped to $16.9 billion. The company received just 49 new orders and had 196 cancellations between January and March.

On Tuesday, Southwest Airlines said it had been negotiating a reduction in the number of 737 Max jets that it would accept this year. Southwest said it would now receive no more than 48 Max jets by the end of 2021, instead of the 107 it had previously expected to take.

Boeing said it hoped to reach its job cut targets through voluntary means, including buyouts and early-retirement offers. Employees who take the buyout will receive three months of health care and one week of pay for every year they have worked at Boeing, up to 26 years, the company told workers last week. Employees have until Monday to signal their interest in buyouts. If approved, they would leave in early June.

Any cuts are likely to be disproportionately focused on Boeing’s facilities in Washington State and South Carolina, home to its three major commercial aircraft factories. A weekslong shutdown of operations at those facilities disrupted production of passenger planes but also affected Boeing’s defense and space business.

While Boeing is struggling to manage the effect of the pandemic, the company this week also expressed concern for the health of its suppliers, which receive about 70 percent of the company’s revenues.

“Currently, our team is focused on the best ways to keep liquidity flowing through our industry and to our supply chain until our customers are buying airplanes and related services again,” Mr. Calhoun told shareholders on Monday.

To that end, the company has taken out a loan, cut costs and suspended dividend payments and stock buybacks, he said. Boeing has $15.5 billion in cash on hand, but plans to raise more capital soon. In an interview on CNBC on Wednesday, Mr. Calhoun did not specify whether some of that would be in the form of federal aid.

On Wednesday, Boeing also said it had suffered more than $2 billion in one-off costs in the first quarter.

A slower-than-expected ramp-up in production of the 737 Max, which was grounded last year after two fatal crashes, subtracted about $1 billion from the company’s bottom line. And it incurred a pretax charge of $827 million for the KC-46A Tanker, most of it stemming from repairs Boeing agreed to make this month after discussions with the Air Force.

The company took a $336 million charge for repairs on the 737 Next Generation aircraft, and the four-week suspension of work at Boeing’s facilities in Washington State cost the company about $137 million.

Over the weekend, Boeing also announced that it was terminating its $4.2 billion deal to buy an 80 percent stake of Embraer’s commercial jet business. Embraer is contesting that move and said Monday that it had begun arbitration proceedings.


https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/29/busi ... virus.html

I-GABE
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Re: Precipitato un B737 Max 8 di ET, conseguenze sul mezzo e sul mercato

Messaggio da leggereda I-GABE » mer 01 lug 2020, 10:15:30

Secondo ThePointsGuy, il 737 si starebbe avvicinando a volare di nuovo:

https://thepointsguy.co.uk/news/boeings ... 2020-07-01

kco
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Re: Precipitato un B737 Max 8 di ET, conseguenze sul mezzo e sul mercato

Messaggio da leggereda kco » lun 06 lug 2020, 20:51:31

Da copia di flight international in mio possesso

A US government investigation has determined that Boeing purposefully held back information about the automated flight-control system on its re-engined 737 Max during the aircraft’s certification process.

That system – the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) – directly contributed to two fatal crashes of the type which killed 346 people.

In a scathing 52-page report published on 1 July, the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) Inspector General writes that the manufacturer did not share vital information about the MCAS during the approval process, as a result, significantly downplaying the risk that it posed.

The MCAS relies on inputs from one angle-of-attack (AOA) sensor on the exterior of the aircraft. Should this sensor malfunction or deliver faulty information – as was the case in the October 2018 crash of Lion Air flight 610 – the system could be triggered erroneously, causing the pilots to lose control of the aircraft.

The report says, in essence, that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was kept in the dark about potential dangers of the flawed system, and therefore it was not able to adequately test or otherwise address it.

“Early in the process, Boeing included limited information in initial briefings to FAA on the Max’s flight-control software, MCAS, which subsequently has been cited as a contributing or potentially contributing factor in both accidents,” the report states.

“Boeing presented the software as a modification to the existing speed trim system that would only activate under certain limited conditions. As such, MCAS was not an area of emphasis in [the] FAA’s certification efforts and therefore did not receive a more detailed review or discussion between FAA engineers and Boeing.

“As a result, [the] FAA was not well positioned to mitigate any risks related to MCAS,” the report reads.

The report is rife with examples that show how Boeing downplayed the technical changes on the Max from previous generations of 737 aircraft. The manufacturer’s employees who were authorised by the FAA under the regulator’s Organization Designation Authorization (ODA) to act as its representatives during the process, portrayed MCAS “as a modification and not a new function”.

The FAA had created the ODA process in 2005, delegating some of the functions around certification to approved aerospace manufacturers, in order to standardise processes and potentially save time, and therefore cost.

Critics have described the ODA process as being ripe for abuse, saying that companies can place undue pressure on their employees assigned to such units.

During a technical familiarisation meeting in May 2012, for example, the MCAS was included as a “provisional modification to address the plane’s tendency to pitch upwards at high speeds”, but it was not emphasised as an area of focus. Just two lines of text in a set of 500 presentation slides referred to the system, the report says.

As a result, the FAA required no additional simulator training for pilots who were already qualified to fly previous-generation 737NGs, even though the system was a significant change from those aircraft. That aligned with Boeing’s and potential customers’ goals to keep training costs down as they integrated the new variant into their fleets.

Only after the Lion Air tragedy on 28 October 2018 did the FAA begin to take a closer look at the newly installed stabilisation system. During the twinjet’s short flight, the MCAS was activated “based on faulty data from the aircraft’s external AOA sensor over 20 times, which led to loss of control of the aircraft.” The aircraft crashed into the Java Sea, killing all 189 aboard.

But even then, a Boeing-issued bulletin to operators – which prompted an FAA Emergency Airworthiness Directive, both issued in early November – did not specifically mention MCAS as a source of concern.

“This was the first time that FAA’s certification engineers had performed a detailed review of MCAS, and according to several FAA certification engineers, it was also the first time they were presented with a full picture of how MCAS worked,” the report says.

On 10 March 2019, Ethiopian Airlines flight 302 crashed just after take-off from Addis Ababa airport, killing 157, and once again MCAS was determined to be a decisive factor in the accident during which the pilots lost control of the aircraft.

By 13 March last year, aviation authorities around the world had grounded the Max; the FAA was the last regulator to do so.

Over the past 16 months the grounding has led to a change in the leadership at the top of what was the world’s biggest aircraft manufacturer, with Dennis Muilenburg replaced by David Calhoun as chief executive. It also has flushed out embarrassing lapses in judgement by Boeing employees working on the Max programme.

A trove of emails published in January contained foul language and disparaging remarks, painting a picture of company culture that was not aligned with its public commitment to safety. They show instances during which Boeing employees openly mocked company management, the US regulator and the ease of which certification was pushed through.

Boeing says it has made “substantial changes… to further enhance our commitment to safety [and] to improve our support to the regulatory process”.

“We have made robust improvements to the 737 Max flight-control software, including ensuring MCAS cannot be activated based on signals from a single sensor and cannot be activated repeatedly,” Boeing says.

“We have dedicated all resources necessary to ensure that the improvements to the 737 Max are comprehensive and thoroughly tested. We have also taken a number of actions to further improve the safety culture of our company.”




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kco
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Re: Precipitato un B737 Max 8 di ET, conseguenze sul mezzo e sul mercato

Messaggio da leggereda kco » gio 09 lug 2020, 16:49:04

Da copia di flight international in mio possesso


US regulators have completed three days of flight tests on the Boeing 737 Max ahead of possible recertification in the coming weeks.

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) flights were an important milestone in the process to bring the troubled narrowbody back into service and end its almost 16-month grounding following two fatal accidents.

“During three days of testing this week, FAA pilots and engineers evaluated Boeing’s proposed changes in connection with the automated flight-control system on the aircraft,” the FAA disclosed on 1 July.

“While completion of the flights is an important milestone, a number of key tasks remain, including evaluating the data gathered during these flights.”

The agency will only lift the grounding order once “FAA safety experts are satisfied that the aircraft meets certification standards”, it says.

Certification flights are among the final steps prior to the FAA issuing an airworthiness directive (AD) to lift the grounding.

That will specify measures operators must take before returning the jets to revenue service. Boeing has said it expects the AD will come in time to permit it to resume 737 Max deliveries in the third quarter.

Data from flight-tracking website Flightradar24 shows that the test aircraft (N7201S) – a Max 7 variant – completed about 10h of flight time over Washington state and neighbouring Idaho over three consecutive days beginning 29 June.

The FAA must still review and approve Boeing’s final design documentation and the regulator’s Flight Standardization Board as well as the Joint Operations Evaluation Board – which includes partners from outside the USA – will evaluate pilot training requirements.

The type was grounded worldwide in March 2019 after two separate accidents killed 346 passengers and crew. The aircraft’s new Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System was at fault in both crashes.



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kco
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Re: Precipitato un B737 Max 8 di ET, conseguenze sul mezzo e sul mercato

Messaggio da leggereda kco » gio 16 lug 2020, 18:33:21

Continua l onda di cancellazioni per il max. Da copia di flight international in mio possesso


Lessor Avolon has cancelled orders for a further 27 Boeing 737 Max aircraft, striking a further blow to the airframer’s backlog, even as it works to get the narrowbody back in the air.

The 27 cancellations, disclosed by Avolon in a 7 July second-quarter business update, add to the 75 of the type axed by the Dublin-based lessor in April.

Avolon still holds direct orders for 37 737 Max jets, according to Boeing. That is 18 fewer than the 55 Max commitments the firm had after the April cancellations. The figures suggest nine of the latest tranche were for aircraft Avolon had intended to purchase from third parties, likely through sale-and-leaseback deals with airlines.

Avolon did not respond to a request for more information.

“In light of the Covid-19 ­pandemic, we continue to work with our customers to balance supply and demand with market realities, especially in the leasing sector,” Boeing says.

“We have come to an agreement with Avolon to further restructure their orderbook. We appreciate Avolon’s ongoing commitment to the 737 family through their outstanding orders.”

Boeing has been hit by a string of recent Max cancellations. In late June, Norwegian cut orders for 92 examples, while in early July, lessor BOC Aviation erased 30 aircraft from its orderbook.

So far this year, Boeing’s customers have scrubbed roughly 450 Max orders, according to their disclosures and Boeing data.

Boeing has said it expects Max deliveries will resume late in the third quarter.



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kco
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Re: Precipitato un B737 Max 8 di ET, conseguenze sul mezzo e sul mercato

Messaggio da leggereda kco » lun 20 lug 2020, 08:07:53

With Boeing 737 Max jets flying again this month on Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) test flights – the first movements since a March 2019 crash which followed a similar tragedy in October 2018, leading to a combined 346 deaths and prompting regulators to ground it globally – recertification of the troubled narrowbody may finally be in sight. Indeed, analysts consider a third-quarter 2020 approval as a reasonable expectation.

But restarting production and deliveries will be just the start of a long process of recovering the financial and reputational damage done to Boeing by the long-running Max saga. Compounding the troubles heaped upon the airframer via the failings of its best-selling product is the onset of what looks to be a long and deep aerospace recession sparked by the coronavirus lockdown of the airline industry.

As far as liquidity is concerned, Boeing at least looks to have averted any short-term ­crisis by raising some $25 billion in financing earlier this year. But while the Chicago-headquartered airframer may not face an imminent cash crunch, its underlying financial health depends on revenue from Max deliveries. “Their liquidity issues are basically entirely based on the Max not flying, and piling up inventory,” says Sheila Kahyaoglu, aerospace equity analyst at investment bank Jefferies. “It puts a strain on the stock.”

Boeing also needs 737 Max production and deliveries to flow to support a struggling supply chain – companies Boeing will need to underpin its eventual 737 replacement, says Michel Merluzeau, aerospace analyst at consultancy AIR. “All the other associated suppliers [must] get themselves back into a cash-flow positive situation,” Merluzeau says. “Failure to do so by the [autumn] introduces all sorts of issues.”

While 737 Max recertification may be imminent, the bar has been set high. FAA administrator Steve Dickson insists his agency will clear the Max only when it is safe.

In a recent hearing he laid out the remaining steps before certification. In addition to flight testing, a Joint Operations Evaluation Board composed of representatives from the FAA, other countries’ regulators and pilots, must complete a pilot training assessment. Then, a Flight Standardization Board must develop pilot training requirements and a Technical Advisory Board must evaluate final Max design documents.

The FAA will lastly issue an airworthiness directive laying out actions airlines must take to resume Max flying, Dickson said.

GAINING APPROVAL

Although issues with the Max’s Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) triggered the grounding, The Seattle Times recently reported that European and Canadian regulators are seeking other, non-MCAS-related changes to its flight-control system. However, regulators may allow those changes to be addressed after certification.

In addition to the grounded Max 8 and Max 9, Boeing is still seeking certification for its Max 7, Max 10 and a high-capacity, 200-seat Max 8 variant. It has disclosed few recent details about those certification efforts.

After the March 2019 grounding, Boeing continued producing Max aircraft, resulting in a stockpile of about 450 undelivered jets before halting production in January this year. Then in late May, it resumed work at a “low” but unspecified rate. The airframer says it will ramp up production at a “very gradual pace” that will increase to 31 aircraft per month in 2021.

Jefferies expects Boeing to produce and deliver 45 Max aircraft in 2020, but it predicts that deliveries will outpace production next year as stockpiled examples are also delivered. It estimates the airframer will produce 198 and deliver 360 Max aircraft in 2021, then produce 372 and deliver 480 in 2022.

At that rate, Jefferies reckons it will be mid-2024 at the earliest before Boeing draws down its 450-unit stockpile.

But the Max will be returning to a market that bears little resemblance to the ramp-up days of 2019. Today, “nobody needs new jets”, says Teal Group vice-president of analysis Richard Aboulafia. Speaking during a recent webcast hosted by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, he noted that in a typical down year, airlines might ground 12% of their aircraft, but this year, groundings hit an “all-time high” of 65%. However, some airlines, such as those that already secured financing, will surely want to take Max deliveries once regulators clear the jet, he adds.

Today’s aircraft market reminds Merluzeau of the 1990s-2000s technology bubble and the past decade’s real estate boom: “You have a surplus of capacity, of available assets, that you need to process through before you get back to an equilibrium of demand.”

Between January and May, Boeing logged 313 Max cancellations and removed from its backlog another 320 aircraft ordered by customers that Boeing suspects may be unable to take delivery. Those adjustments brought Boeing’s May backlog to 3,776 Max aircraft.

The world’s airlines may cancel more orders for the Max and other types, including the competing Airbus A320. But additional cancellations might be minimal because government aid packages have kept most airlines out of bankruptcy, says Aboulafia. He also notes that Boeing headed off some cancellations by renegotiating sales contract provisions that can otherwise allow customers to axe orders for aircraft grounded for more than a year.

“So far, backlogs are holding up,” Aboulafia says, noting airlines have cancelled less than 1% of commercial aircraft orders since the pandemic started. “Deferrals are another story. Deferral requests are coming thick and fast.”

Boeing has said it is working to accommodate customers by deferring deliveries and swapping Max orders for other jets when ­possible. This year’s Max cancellations ­include at least 19 aircraft that airlines ­converted to other types, Boeing says.

Jefferies views orders from lessors and airlines from Latin America and the Middle East as most “at risk” for deferrals. Those customers hold some 1,200 Max orders, or 30% of the backlog. The Jefferies report cites particular uncertainty about orders from Flydubai, Lion Air and SpiceJet – carriers that have far more Max orders than aircraft in their current fleets.

WHAT NEXT?

The size of the Max backlog and the programme’s financial recovery may also affect Boeing’s plan to develop a replacement narrowbody. In Merluzeau’s view, “Boeing needs [the Max] for at least the next decade to just prepare themselves financially for what’s coming after.”

Boeing’s current Max backlog would allow for about seven and a half years of production at a rate of 42 aircraft per month. And although more cancellations could materialise, so too could new orders, especially post recovery. But the Max’s struggles, and risk that Airbus might act first, could lead Boeing to launch its own narrowbody replacement a bit earlier than the ideal time. “Boeing will probably… do something sooner to gain customer traction,” Merluzeau says, suggesting a programme launch could come between 2025 and 2028 with service entry in the early 2030s.

But jumping too early has risks; the aircraft could be unable to accommodate advanced power-generation technologies, new composite structures or improved production automation. “One wonders”, he adds, “how much can Boeing regain from a strategic initiative standpoint? How much can Boeing prepare for what is coming from Airbus?”

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kco
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Re: Precipitato un B737 Max 8 di ET, conseguenze sul mezzo e sul mercato

Messaggio da leggereda kco » lun 03 ago 2020, 18:35:42

Da copia di flight international in mio possesso

Boeing intends to deliver a majority of its 450-strong 737 Max stockpile within one year of resuming deliveries of the still-grounded jet.

Speaking during the company’s second-quarter earnings call on 29 July, executives stressed that Boeing will prioritise delivery of aircraft already produced, clearing that inventory before focusing on ramping 737 production.

“We will continue to focus on relieving the inventory… That informs the production rate,” says Boeing chief executive David Calhoun.

Chief financial officer Greg Smith adds that Boeing expects to deliver “the majority” of its inventory of stored 737 Max within a year of resuming deliveries.

However, he says some of those deliveries will stretch into a second year.

He confirms the inventory stands at “approximately” 450 jets. Boeing accumulated those aircraft because it continued manufacturing the Max through most of 2019 despite being unable to deliver the type.

Boeing now says it will delay the production ramp-up of the 737 Max, only reaching a 31-per-month rate in early 2022, around a year later than previously planned.

The company resumed 737 Max production in May after a five-month halt. It is now building the jet at an unspecified “low” rate.

In addition, Boeing has pushed back its expectation of the 737 Max’s certification by one quarter, saying it now expects to resume at some point after 1 October.

Boeing cannot begin delivering the jets until regulators lift the grounding, which has been in place since March 2019.

“The overall [coronavirus pandemic] environment creates real logistical challenges,” says Calhoun, including restrictions on international travel, which hamper interaction with overseas pilots and regulators.

“Based on our latest assessment, we now expect the necessary regulatory approvals will be obtained in time to resume” deliveries in the fourth quarter, Calhoun says.

On 21 July, the Federal Aviation Administration said it would shortly issue a proposed rule that would lift the Max grounding. Once published, the agency will accept public comments on that proposal for 45 days.



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kco
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Re: Precipitato un B737 Max 8 di ET, conseguenze sul mezzo e sul mercato

Messaggio da leggereda kco » lun 10 ago 2020, 16:59:27

Da copia di flight international in mio possesso

US regulators have suggested four key design changes to the beleaguered Boeing 737 Max in order to address safety issues that led to its almost 17-month grounding following two fatal crashes that killed a combined 346 people.

On 3 August, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) said that it is proposing a new ­airworthiness directive (AD) that will allow the aircraft to return to service. This includes proposals to enhance the safety of the aircraft as well as the ability of the flightcrew to deal with potential issues.

Although the FAA completed three days of flight tests on 1 July, there is still no indication of when the jet will be released to fly again in revenue service.

“This proposed AD would require installing new flight-control computer software, revising the existing flight manual to incorporate new and revised flightcrew procedures, installing new Max display system software [and] changing the horizontal stabilizer trim wire routing installations,” the FAA says.

The new flight-control software is intended to prevent erroneous activation of the aircraft’s Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS), which was determined to be a primary cause of the two crashes, in October 2018 and March 2019.

In addition, revisions to the flight manuals and alerts to the pilots are designed to ensure that crew can correctly recognise and respond to a potential failure of an angle-of-attack sensor – a key piece of equipment triggering activation of the MCAS.

Changing the trim wire routing, meanwhile, “is intended to restore compliance with the FAA’s latest wire separation safety standards”.

The agency has opened a 45-day period during which it invites comments on the proposed AD.

In addition to these changes, the FAA’s proposal includes a requirement that operators conduct an angle-of-attack sensor system test and perform an operational readiness flight prior to returning each aircraft to service.

The FAA estimates that the AD will affect 73 US-registered aircraft, costing operators a total of about $1 million.

Boeing must also modify built but undelivered 737 Max jets prior to their handover.

Proposed requirements for pilot training are due to be published separately.



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